Tamil Nadu has a varied and diverse topography, which supports a variety of flora and fauna. About 18 percent of the total geographical area of the state is under forests. These forests stretch over the plain and the mountains. Dry-deciduous forests, scrubs, thorn forests and mangroves are spread over dry lands while the Western Ghats and other cooler regions support moist deciduous, wet evergreen forests, grasslands and Sholas (Sholas are a form of montane wet temperate forests, which occur predominantly in sheltered pockets of the Nilgiris and Upper Palni areas of Tamil Nadu).
The mixed deciduous forests of the Western Ghats region are home to a
majority of plant species found in Tamil Nadu. These hills are an ideal
refuge for elephants, bisons, tigers, deer and monkeys. The Nilgiri
hills have a number of medicinal plants and a variety of flowers.
Cinchona and eucalyptus are some of the examples. Medicinal herbs are
also found in the Palani hills and Courtallam. Tirunelveli district is
known for the Palmyra tree, whose products are used as raw materials for
several cottage industries. Rubber is the main plantation crop in
Kanyakumari while sandalwood grows in the Javadi hills of Vellore
The animal life in Tamil Nadu is also varied. Several wildlife
sanctuaries and National Parks have been set up to preserve the animal
life in the state. Wildlife sanctuaries like Madumalai and Annamalai are
situated in the Western Ghats. These hills provide ideal conditions for
a variety of animal and plant life. In all, there are five National
Parks and seventeen wildlife sanctuaries in Tamil Nadu. Some of the
important wildlife sanctuaries in Tamil Nadu are the Anamalai Wildlife
Sanctuary, Kalakadu Wildlife Sanctuary, Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary,
Kunthakulam Bird Sanctuary, Mundanthurai Tiger Sanctuary, Mudumalai
Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park, the Viralimalai Sanctuary and the
Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary. The Marine National Park and the Guindy
National Park are one of the most visited places.
Situated at Vandalur, in the outskirts of Chennai, the Anna zoological
park is one of the modern zoos of India and the biggest in South East
Asia. The zoological Park spreads over an area of about 510 hectares of
dry evergreen forests.
Anamalai wildlife sanctuary is one of the most attractive preserves of
nature in Tamil Nadu. It is also called the India Gandhi national Park
and located in the Western Ghats near Pollachi, about 90 km from
Coimbatore. The wildlife sanctuary is spread over an area of about
The Chennai Crocodile Bank is located about 44 Km from the Chennai
city. This crocodile bank houses several species of Indian and African
crocodiles and alligators. Here, the crocodiles are kept in their
natural environment in open pools and can be viewed from safe proximity.
The Guindy National Park forms one of the main attractions for people
coming to Chennai for vacations. The National Park is an amazing picnic
spot for you, your family and friends. Spending a day out in the lap of
nature and wildlife is an amazing experience. To add to its natural
beauty, the National Park has a snake park and a children's park.
Mannar Marine National Park
The Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park is a unique marine biosphere
reserve, located in the Tuticorin and Ramanathapuram districts of
Tamilnadu. Rich in marine life, the Gulf of Mannar is spread over an
area of about 10,500-sq-kms with 21 islands and continuous stretches of
The Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary is located amidst the beautiful
Nilgiri Hills. This is the point where the Western Ghats merge with the
Eastern Ghats. The relief of the sanctuary is an interesting mix of
plain, swamp, undulating parkland, open grassland, valleys and streams.
There is a National Park measuring 103 sq km inside the sanctuary.
The Mukkurthi National Park is located in the Nilgiri Hills and forms a
part of the Nilgiri Biosphere reserves. It is interspersed with sholas
and woodland. Situated about 40 Km from Udhagamandalam, Mukkurthi
National Park is home to a variety of animal and bird life.
In Tamilnadu, there is no end to your wildlife adventure and
exploration as we take you to yet another wildlife sanctuary- the Point
Calimere Sanctuary. Spread over an area of about 17.26 sq km and
surrounded by sea and shore, Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary is
situated in the Nagapattinam district of Tamilnadu.
Vedanthangal, the oldest bird sanctuary in India is one place, which
can't easily fade off from one's memories. The sanctuary is an amazing
place to be in, especially during the Sunset, as you can spot thousands
of birds returning to their nests and dotting trees. You can spot
several species of birds of which most are migratory.