Assam - the very mention of this word brings to one’s mind the delightful blend of culture, heritage, faiths and beliefs of the innumerous ethnic tribes and sub-tribes residing in this region. The culture and tradition of the state, its music, dance and literature are all interwoven into the social fabric and cross all barriers of caste, creed and religion. In fact, a mention of the rich tradition of the state, without referring to the diverse lifestyle, arts-crafts, fairs and festival of the people residing therein, would be as good as incomplete.
Assam has the largest number of tribes or races in the whole of India. The main communities of the region include the Aryans and the non-Aryans i.e. Mongoloids and Indo-Iranians. Apart from that, Bodos (or Kachari), Karbi, Kosh-Rajbanshi, Miri, Mishimi and Rabha are the other tribes that have been infused in the rich cultural tapestry of Assam. All these ethnic tribes have their own distinct pattern of dressing, language, festivals, tradition and heritage. In spite of such variations, the people here live in perfect peace and harmony - a unique trait seen only in this part of the world.
The diversified culture of Assam can also be attributed to the influence of the different dynasties and empires that resided in the region in different eras. Around 45 different languages are spoken by different ethnic communities within Assam. However, the principal language of the state is Assamese, regarded as the lingua franca of the entire northeast India. The major festival in Assam is Bihu, which is celebrated by all, irrespective of their caste and creed. Some other festivals celebrated with pomp and grandeur within the state are the Baikhu and Pharkantis of the Rabhas, Ali- ai ligang by the Misings and the Me-dum-me-phi by the Ahoms.
The state of Assam has a rich and ancient history, the foundation of which can be found in the Vedic and Tantric literature, Assamese folklore and Buddhist literature. There has been a confluence of people of the Indo-Aryan, Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman origin in the state and this has led to the currently existing blend of culture and tradition therein. Through the manuscripts and medieval texts found in the different regions of the state
According to the Census Report of 2001, the total population of Assam is 26,638,407, which constitute about 2.59% of the total population of India. The vast numbers of people residing in the state live in a multi-ethnic and multi-religious society and speak languages belonging to three major groups: Austro-Asiatic, Tibeto-Burman and Indo- Aryan. Assam is often regarded as the melting pot of a large number of ethnic tribes and races, living together in an environment of harmony and peace.
Religion is an integral part of any community or society, necessary for its development. It is often considered as an organized approach for leading a fulfilling and happy life. The religious community of Assam mainly comprises of Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism and Buddhism. Apart from this, various indigenous groups also follow Animism, Tantricism, Brahminism and Vaishnavism. Despite such vast differences in their religious faiths and beliefs, all the people within the state live in perfect peace and harmony with each other.